Improving Reading Instruction Research
Harvard University Research
JEANNE S. CHALL, Ph.D. - Harvard University
Professor of Education and Director of the Reading Laboratory at the Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Jeanne Chall, author of Learning to Read: The Great Debate, published updated research in a March 1989 Phi Delta Kappan article.
Quoting Peter Freebody and Brian Byrne of Australia:
"The authors suggest that word-specific associations may serve a student adequately up to about second grade, but
Study of Reading Disabilities:
"Students 'at risk' of reading failure have long been thought to be deficient in phonological processing. According to Isabelle Liberman, 'The results of
Poor readers of all ages and in many different countries have difficulty with 'segmental analysis of speech/the apprehension of the phonological structure of words.' Furthermore, dyslexic students are often unaware of how the written symbols map onto speech. But these students CAN be trained to segment and blend."
"What does the research indicate about the effectiveness of phonics instruction? Classroom research shows that, on average, students who are taught phonics get off to a better start in learning to read than students who are not taught phonics."
Quoting Marilyn Adams of the Reading Research and Education Center at the University of Illinois:
"Perhaps the most influential arguments for teaching phonics are based on studies comparing the relative effectiveness of different approaches to teaching beginning reading. Collectively, these studies suggest, with impressive consistency, that programs including systematic instruction on letter-to-sound correspondences lead to higher achievement in both
Phonics leads to early use of good literature and writing skills.
"Currently, the anti-phonics movement has taken unto itself a pro-literature,
Indeed, the change in the early 1970s to
"The same is true of writing. A code emphasis leads to earlier—rather than later—writing. Those students who know the letters of the alphabet write earlier. Also, early readers who know phonics use it for writing and for reading."